If an individual, partnership, estate, trust, or an S corporation engages in an activity that is not conducted as a for-profit business, deductions are limited to the amount of income from the activity. This rule does not apply to corporations, other than S corporations. If an activity is considered a for-profit business, deductions can exceed income, allowing the resulting loss to offset other income.
In determining whether an activity is a hobby or a business, all facts and circumstances are taken into account. No one factor can make the determination. The following list is not intended to be all inclusive.
1) Manner in which the taxpayer carries on the activity. Factors that may indicate a business
include maintaining complete and accurate books and records, carrying on the activity substantially similar to other profitable activities of the same nature, and changing operating methods and techniques to improve
2) The expertise of the taxpayer or his or her advisors. Factors that may indicate a business
include knowledge of the taxpayer, or consultation with those who are knowledgeable about a particular industry, then using that knowledge to try and make a profit.
3) The time and effort expended by the taxpayer in carrying on the activity. Factors that may indicate
a business include spending a lot of time and effort in the activity, particularly if the activity does not have substantial personal or recreational aspects. Taking time away from another occupation may also indicate a profit motive. Spending little time will not be counted against the taxpayer if qualified employees are hired to carry on the activity.
4) Expectation that assets used in activity may appreciate in value. Even if no profit is made
from operations, if the value of land or other assets in the activity appreciate so that an overall profit is made from a sale, the activity may be considered a business.
5) The success of the taxpayer in carrying on other similar or dissimilar activities. If the taxpayer
was successful in the past turning an unprofitable venture into a profitable venture, the current activity may be a business even if it has not yet made a profit.
6) The taxpayer’s history of income or losses with respect to the activity. Early losses during startup
will not count against the taxpayer, but continued losses after the customary startup stage that are not explainable may indicate a hobby. Losses sustained due to unforeseen circumstances, such as casualty or thefts beyond the taxpayer’s control, will not count against the taxpayer. Any series of profitable years are strong evidence the activity is a business.
7) The amount of occasional profits, if any, which are earned. The amount of profits in relation to the amount of losses, and in relation to the taxpayer’s investment in the activity, may indicate intent. An occasional small profit one year, mixed with large losses in other years or large taxpayer investments, may indicate the activity is a hobby. Substantial occasional profits mixed with frequent small losses or investment may indicate a business. An opportunity to earn substantial ultimate profits in a highly speculative venture also
indicates a profit motive.
8) The financial status of the taxpayer. If the taxpayer does not have substantial income or capital from other sources, the taxpayer may have a profit motive. If the taxpayer has substantial income from other sources, and losses from the activity in question generate substantial tax benefits, the taxpayer may not have a profit motive.
9) Elements of personal pleasure or recreation. Where there are recreational or personal elements involved with the activity, a lack of profits may indicate a hobby. On the other hand, a lack of any appeal in the activity other than possible profits indicates a profit motive. It is not necessary that the sole purpose for engaging in an activity is to make a profit. The availability of other investments that might produce a higher
rate of return will not count against the taxpayer. The fact that a taxpayer derives personal pleasure in the activity is not sufficient in itself to classify the activity as a hobby if other factors indicate the activity is a business.
Click the following link to download the NFS Hobby vs. Business Brochure for more information.